All the notes are beased on Tae Kim’s Guide to Learning Japanese. Thanks a lot!

State-of-being

Words

元気【げんき】- healthy; lively

先生【せんせい】- teacher

おはよう - Good morning (casual)

おはようございます - Good morning (polite)

お~ - a honorific prefix used for politeness and never used when referring to oneself

Casually

元気? (Are you) well?

元気。 (I’m) fine.

Politely

Add「です」to the end of the sentence.

When asking, add「が」to「です」as a question marker.

元気ですか? (Are you) well?

元気です。 (I’m) well.

Examples

Casual Morning Greetings

おはよう。 Morning.

おはよう。 Morning.

元気? (Are you) well?

元気。 (I’m) good.

Polite Morning Greetings

おはようございます。 Morning.

おはようございます! Good morning!

お元気ですか? Are (you) well?

元気です。 (I’m) good.

Topic Particles

Particles are one or more Hiragana(平仮名)characters following a word to perform grammatical roles.

Words

これ – this

何 【なに/なん】 – what

それ – that

ペン – pen

今 【いま】 – now

ちょっと – a little (casual)

忙しい 【いそが・しい】 – busy

映画 【えい・が】 – movie

好き 【す・き】 – likable (unlike English “like” , it is an adjective instead of a verb)

最近 【さい・きん】 – recent; lately

どう – how

忙しい 【いそが・しい】 – busy

「は」Topic Particle

「は」 is used to indicate a new topic for the conversation.

It is pronounced as 「わ」(wa) when it is used as a topic particle.

Examples

これは、何(なん)ですか? As for this, what is (it)?

それは、ペンです。 As for that, (it’s a) pen.

今は、忙しい? As for now, (are you) busy?

今は、ちょっと忙しい。 As for now, (I’m) a little busy.

映画は、好きですか? As for movie (s), (are they) likable?

好きです。 (They are) likable.

Greetings

「は」is also used in greetings for both daytime and night.

They are originally “As for today/tonight, how is your mood?” but now shortened to be “As for today/tonight”.

Examples

こんにちは。 As for today.

こんにちは。 As for today.

最近は、どうですか? As for lately, how (is it)?

忙しいです。 (I’m) busy (lately).